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ES 100 Mikenas ~ Introduction to Environmental Studies: Paraphrasing, Citation Style by Discipline, & Powerpoints


APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association. The social sciences often use APA style for documenting sources.

Biology & CSE

CSE style was developed by the Council of Science Editors. It is often used in Biology and Kinesiology. For the Biology and Kinesiology Departments, please cite all articles using the print format - whether you are using the print or not. Do not include URLs, date accessed, names of databases, etc.


MLA was developed by the Modern Language Association. The humanities typically use MLA format to cite sources.

Turabian / Chicago

Turabian style is named for its developer Kate Turabian, and is used in various disciplines, including history. This style is sometimes referred to as Chicago style since it is based on The Chicago Manual of Style.